Breast Reconstruction is performed for numerous reasons but most commonly after a mastectomy for breast cancer. The techniques range from using temporary expanders followed by permanent implants to using the patient's own tissue such as the abdomen (TRAM Flap) or back (Latissimus Flap). Most breast reconstructions that are due to cancer involve multiple stages to complete the breast mound, reshape the breast, and create a nipple and areola. Fortunately, the Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998 (WHCRA) mandates that health insurance providers cover the cost of breast reconstruction to the affected breast and any additional surgery to the opposite breast for symmetry. For those women who are dealing with the potentially life threatening disease of breast cancer and are facing surgery that may cause a severe deformity of the chest, they should seek the consult of a surgical oncologist that has experience with breast cancer. Most well respected surgical oncologists work directly with plastic and reconstructive surgeons to offer the patient reconstructive options immediately following the mastectomy on the same day of surgery. This gives the patient an opportunity to recover quickly and avoid the negative physical and psychological impact of a mastectomy chest deformity. Today we are seeing more patients choosing elective prophylactic (preventive) mastectomies with immediate reconstruction, especially if there is a strong family history or genetic markers for breast cancer. For these patients the Breast Reconstruction can often be completed in one or two stages.